A nice little hack, I found the other day, shows how to log into the running android emulator and test a few selects on the database my app created.
Where you installed your android sdk there is a directory called platform-tools/ which contains a neat little thing called adb, which is short for Android Debug Bridge. With this tool you can open a shell into the emulator and look around some.
adb -e shell
Once inside just follow the instructions of the link above to find out if your database is what you thought it should be. (Update: just take the short path to /data/data/your.package.name/databases and then sqlite3 yourdatabasename)
PS: yes I am trying to learn how to program android apps 😉